Deep epithelial lymphatic collectors drain in collectors within the lamina propria. In tissues where TCs were previously identified using transmission electron microscopy TEM , three-dimensional ultrastructural studies demonstrated that TCs do not exist and, in fact, in single plane, the thin, flat cell body of pancake-like cells might occasionally be misinterpreted as telopodes [ 3 ]. No other cell types were found expressing that marker.
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Copyright © by the authors. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background and Objectives: There are only a few studies regarding gut subepithelial telocytes TCs.
Subepithelial TCs were associated with the intestinal stem niche but a proper differential diagnosis with lymphatic endothelial cells LECs was not performed.
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In this study, we will also critically review studies suggesting that distinctive TCs could be positioned within the lamina propria. Results: The results support the poorly investigated anatomy of intramural gastric lymphatics, with circumferential collectors located on both sides of the muscularis mucosae mucosal and then submucosal and myenteric collectors in the muscularis propria.
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Deep epithelial lymphatic collectors drain in collectors within the lamina propria. Keywords: lymphatic endothelial cell, mesenchymal cell, intestinal stem niche, lamina propria, niche dating site reviews fibroblasts 1.
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Introduction Telocytes is the name given to interstitial cells with small cellular bodies, bearing prolongations telopodes that are extremely thin, long and moniliform [ 1 ]. It has been emphasised that the telopodial emergence and the size of the cell body and telopodes should differentiate TCs from various types of fibroblasts [ 1 ].
In TCs, cell prolongations directly emerge from the cell body the telopodial emergence and should be differentiated from hybrid morphologies or from a thick emergence of processes from the cell body, followed by a gradual thinning [ 1 ]. It has repeatedly been indicated that telopodes alone are not enough to distinguish TCs [ 12 ]. On two-dimensional cuts, the morphological appearance of TCs could be caused by tangential cuts of endothelial tubes.
In tissues where TCs were previously identified using transmission electron microscopy TEMthree-dimensional ultrastructural studies demonstrated that TCs do not exist and, in fact, in single plane, the thin, flat cell body of pancake-like cells might occasionally be misinterpreted as telopodes [ 3 ].
The TCs identification by immunohistochemistry is still uncertain. Additionally, TCs do not appear in the accepted Terminologia Histologica, and considerable artifactual results that have been used to support TCs as a novel cell type, are extensively documented [ 4567 ].
Diaz-Flores et al. A different protocol for isolating normal and diseased LECs by multi-parameter fluorescence-activated cell sorting rejected the use of LYVE-1 [ 17 ] because that marker was found strongly expressed in the initial lymphatics but its expression was either very weak, or absent, in the lymphatic collecting vessels [ 18 ].
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Nevertheless, Diaz-Flores et al. A recently published paper in Nature by Shoshkes-Carmel et al.
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Similar to Wnt5b, Wnts play key roles in vascular morphogenesis, vessels sprouting and elongation, but also in the development of lymphatic capillaries niche dating site reviews 202122 ]. Moreover, a single figure depicts such a SETC in transmission electron microscopy with such a small prolongation that can hardly be taken as a telopode [ 19 ].
Previously, subepithelial TCs were also found in the parotid gland; however, they were not tested for the expression of CD34 [ 24 ]. This is a serious problem, as, in two-dimensional tangential cuts, LECs could appear as TC-like cells [ 26 ], hence the possibility of easily challenging the immunohistochemistry proofs.
We therefore intended to perform an immunohistochemical study using CD34 and podoplanin on human gastric wall samples, to critically review the results and document the publications identifying SETCs in the gut. Material and Methods The immunohistochemical study was performed retrospectively on archived paraffin-embedded samples of human stomach ten cases.
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The ages of donor patients ranged from 56 to 62 years. The study was tacitly approved by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and it was conducted in accordance with the general principles of medical research, as stated in the Declaration of Helsinki.
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The paraffin-embedded samples were processed with an automatic histoprocessor Diapath, Martinengo, BG, Italy.